Global Warming According to the World Institute
- United States Environmental Protection Agency
Explains that global warming is the increase in the average temperature at the earth’s surface, both of which have passed, and that happens at this time. Most events are influenced by the events of the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. Global warming is causing climate change.
- Natural Resources Defense Council
Explains that global warming is the biggest environmental and humanitarian crises that occur at this time. Earth’s atmosphere is very hot because trapped by the carbon dioxide gas that could threaten climate change and may cause a disaster on the earth’s surface. NRDC also appealed to all the people on earth to act against global warming so bad effects can be reduced to human life.
- National Wildlife Federation
Describes global warming as an event in which the earth is getting hot day by day, more and more heavy rain and floods, more intense storms and drought deepened. Event is the real impact that occurs as a result of global warming on Earth. Global warming also changed the landscape of life on earth and off many species.
Causes of Global Warming
- Greenhouse effect
All sources of energy on earth comes from the sun. Most of the energy in the form of short-wave radiation, including visible light. When this energy arrives surface of the Earth, he turned on the light into heat that warms the earth. Earth’s surface will absorb some of the heat and reflect the rest. Some of this real hot wavelengths of infrared radiation into space.
However, some residual heat trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of the accumulated amount of greenhouse gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and methane that become traps for this radiation. These gases absorb and reflect radiation emitted by the Earth and consequently the heat stored in the earth’s surface. This situation occurs continuously, so that the annual average temperature of the earth continues to increase. These gases work in the greenhouse gases. By increasing the concentration of these gases in the atmosphere, the more heat is trapped below.
The greenhouse effect is greatly needed by all living things on earth, because without it, the planet would be very cool. With an average temperature of 15 ° C (59 ° F), the earth actually had more hot 33 ° C (59 ° F) from its original temperature, if there is no greenhouse effect the earth’s temperature is only -18 ° C so that the ice will cover the surface the entire earth. But on the contrary, if the gas has been exaggerated in the atmosphere, will lead to global warming.
- Feedback effects
The elements of the cause of global warming is also influenced by various feedback processes that result. An example is the evaporation of water. In the case of warming due to greenhouse gases such as CO2, warming will initially cause greater volumes of water that evaporates into the atmosphere. Because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, the heating will be sustained and will continue to increase the quota of water vapor in the air to achieve equilibrium concentration of water vapor. Greenhouse effect is greater than the effect of CO2 alone. Although this feedback raises the absolute water content in the air, the relative humidity of the air is almost constant or even fall because the air becomes more hangat.Umpan behind this only affects slow because CO2 has a long time in the atmosphere.
- Variations in the Sun
Variations of the Sun for 30 years. There is a hypothesis that variations in the sun, with the possibility reinforced by the feedback from the cloud, can contribute to warming today. The difference between this mechanism with the warming due to the greenhouse effect is the increased activity of the sun will heat the stratosphere reverse the greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere. Cooling of the lower stratosphere has been observed at least since 1960, that will not happen when solar activity is a major contributor to recent warming. Thinning of the ozone layer also can provide a cooling effect but the depletion occurs from the end of 1970.
The impact of global warming
Scientists using computer models of temperature, precipitation patterns, and atmospheric circulation to study global warming. Based on these models, scientists have made some forecasts about the impact of global warming on weather, sea levels, coasts, agriculture, wildlife and human health.
- Climate started unstable
Scientists predict that during global warming, the northern regions of the northern hemisphere (Northern Hemisphere) will warm faster than other regions on Earth. As a result, icebergs will melt and the earth will shrink. Will be less ice floating in the waters of the North. Areas that previously suffered mild snow, probably will not get it again. The subtropical mountains, snow-covered portion will shrink and will melt faster.
The planting season will be longer in some areas. The temperature in winter and at night will tend to increase. Warm area will become more humid because more water evaporates from the oceans. Scientists are not yet sure whether the moisture will actually increase or decrease further warming. This is because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, so its presence will increase the insulation effect of the atmosphere.
However, more water vapor will form more clouds, so that would reflect sunlight back into space, where it will lower the heating process (see water cycle). High humidity will increase an average rainfall of about 1 percent for every degree Fahrenheit warming. Rainfall across the world has increased by 1 percent in the last hundred years. Storms will become more frequent. In addition, the water will evaporate more quickly from the ground. As a result, some areas will become drier than ever. The wind will blow harder and probably with different patterns. Typhoons (hurricanes) that draws its strength from the evaporation of water, will be greater. Contrary to the warming that occurred, some very cold periods may occur. Weather patterns become less predictable and more extreme.
- Sea level rise
Changes in the average height of the sea level measured from the area with geologically stable environment. When the atmosphere warms, the surface layer of the oceans will also be warmed up, so that the volume will expand and increase the sea level. Warming will also melt a lot of ice at the poles, especially around Greenland, which will raise the volume of water in the ocean. Sea levels around the world have increased by 10-25 cm (4-10 inches) during the 20th century, and the IPCC scientists predict a further rise of 9-88 cm (4-35 inches) in the 21st century.
Changes in sea level will greatly affect life in coastal areas. The increase in 100 cm (40 inches) would drown 6 percent of the Dutch area, 17.5 percent of the region of Bangladesh, and many islands. Erosion of cliffs, beaches and sand dunes will increase. When it reaches the mouth of the open sea, tidal flooding will increase in the mainland. Rich countries will spend huge amounts of money to protect coastal areas, while the poor countries may only be able to evacuate people from coastal regions.
Even a small rise in sea level will affect coastal ecosystems. The emergence of 50 cm (20 inches) would submerge half of coastal marshes in the United States. The new swamp will also be established, but not in urban areas and areas that are already built. Rise in sea level would cover most of the Everglades, Florida.
- Global Temperatures are Tending to Rise
One might assume that a warm earth will produce more food than ever before, but it is actually not the same in some places. The southern part of Canada, for example, may benefit from higher rainfall and long growing season.
- On the other hand, semi-arid tropical agricultural land in some parts of Africa may not be able to grow. Desert agricultural areas that use irrigation water from the mountains may suffer if the snowpack (snow collection) winter, which serves as a natural reservoir, will melt before the peak month of the growing season. Food crops and forest insect and disease attack more powerful.
- Ecological disturbances
Animals and plants into living creatures that are difficult to avoid the effects of global warming because most of the land is controlled by humans. In global warming, animals tend to migrate towards the poles and up the mountains. Plants will change the direction of growth, seeking new areas as old habitats become too warm. However, human development will inhibit this displacement. Species that migrate north or south that are blocked by cities or agricultural lands may be dead. Some types of species that are not able to move quickly towards the poles may also be destroyed.
- Social And Political Impact
Changes in weather and ocean can cause the appearance of heat-related illness (heat stroke) and death. Hot temperatures can also cause crop failure resulting in hunger and malnutrition. Extreme weather and rising levels due to melting sea ice in the Arctic could lead to diseases associated with natural disasters (floods, storms and fires) and deaths due to trauma. The emergence of natural disasters are usually accompanied by migration to places of refuge where frequent diseases, such as diarrhea, malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, psychological trauma, skin diseases, and others.
Ecosystem shifts can have an impact on the spread of waterborne diseases (waterborne diseases) as well as the spread of disease vectors (vectors). Such as an increase in the incidence of dengue fever since the advent of space (ecosystem) mosquitoes breed.
With climate change, there are several species of disease vectors (Aedes aegypti), viruses, bacteria, plasmodium become more resistant to certain drugs targeted at these organisms. In addition, it is estimated that there are some natural species will adapt or become extinct because of this extreme perbuhan ecosystem.
This also will affect climate change (climate change) that can cause an increase in certain diseases such as acute respiratory infection (drought / forest fires, DBD Linkages with erratic rainy season)
Gradation environment caused by waste pollution in the river also contributes to waterborne diseases and disease vectors. Coupled with the air pollution emissions from uncontrolled gas plant will further contribute to respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergies, coccidioidomycosis, chronic heart and lung disease, and others.
NAME: ATIKA ROBIYATUL AULIA
NPM / Class : 21212236 / 3EB24